Among other things, she mentions studies that go back eighty years. I'd suggest that studies going back even half that time wouldn't be testing even half the chemicals, toxins, and metal compounds likely to be found in today's sewage. Since any cursory search of the literature will show that not all of these products are removed at the treatment plant, three questions arise:In an earlier letter, Cliff forwarded information he extracted from a 2009 US EPA Report.
A quick search of the literature will show that different countries have widely different standards in this regard, suggesting that this is a legitimate area for concern. Given the reasonable scientific concern regarding sewage sludge I don't think a study of the local stuff is unwarranted.
- First, how effective are our local sewage plants are in extracting heavy metals, toxins and other chemicals before it becomes sludge and then fertilizer?
- Second, what are the national and provincial standards for levels of these products in fertilizers?
- Finally, are these standards adequate to protect both the environment and human health?
The sampling effort collected sewage sludge from 74 randomly selected publicly owned treatment works in 35 states. Samples were collected in 2006 and 2007. The TNSSS Technical Report provides results for 145 analytes, including:After the jump, more extracts from the report, detailing the number of samples in which various chemicals were found. That list will probably scare some readers. Certain environmentalists like to cite such lists precisely because they sound scary, and because they lend a false aura of scientific credibility to their arguments. Such lists are all but meaningless without two essential pieces of information:
Some analytes were found in all 84 samples, while others were found in none or only a few of the sewage sludge samples.
- four anions (nitrite/nitrate, fluoride, water-extractable phosphorus),
- 28 metals,
- four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,
- two semi-volatiles,
- 11 flame retardants,
- 72 pharmaceuticals, and
- 25 steroids and hormones.
- In what concentrations were the chemicals found? (For many chemicals, minuscule amounts are both routine and harmless.)
- What level of exposure to people, plants, or animals would result if the sludge were used for its intended purpose? (How much actually gets to people is the real worry, and Cliff's list tells you nothing about that.)